Evaluation or Research
My project represents evaluation rather than research. The reason being, my project is to help the stakeholders understand occurrences within the cycle of the program. In this case, the success of the PBS program and positive behavior modification taking place in the participants. It would be hard to try and control the variables if this were research, and the only manipulation that would take place would be the need to change something in the program itself. The main goal of the evaluator for this project is to collect information and provide feedback. Through summative assessments and frequent meetings, adjustments can be made to improve the program along the way.
There are two ways to look at the question of sampling with my project. When I consider that every student in this particular school will be involved in the evaluation, the answer would be no, there is no sampling. But if I look at it in a larger sense, i.e. this school being the only school in the county implementing this program, than my answer could be yes. For the purpose of this assignment, I am going with the latter.
Since there are tens of thousands of students in the Bay County school district, but only a few hundred at Patterson Elementary who are participating, that makes them a sample. After reading the chapter, I believe I lean more towards a Judgment Sample if I had to label it. I do this simply because all of the students in this sample are low income, minority, one parent families. They do not represent the rest of the county as a whole, but can represent those who are in most need of this program.
YouTube Video on Sampling Methods
In the video the teacher discusses what a sample, or as he describes it a survey, is and why we need to use one. He covers the meaning of population, which is, would include everyone that could be involved in the survey, but since a population would be too large to conduct an effective evaluation, we use a sample, or smaller snapshot of the population of a whole. He also talks about the mean or the average, of the information given in the sample. It always makes more sense to use a sample when the population is very large for both time and, in some cases, costs.
YouTube Video on Simple Random Sampling
Simple random sampling simply means that every item or individual has an equal chance of getting selected for the group. The presenter refers to this as putting names in hat. As long as the names are well shuffled, then each has the same probability of getting picked. However, this type of method can be tainted by human error. Another example of SRS is to use a random digit table where the outcome is random and independent of other outcomes. Lastly, he discussed using a random number generator where all human elements are taken away and a machine helps pick the sample. Also discussed in the video are the pros and cons to simple random sampling. The pros are that these methods are easy to use, and unbiased. The cons to using this sort of sampling is that the variances could be large, that there must be a population reference frame, and that the sample you end up with may not be the best representation of the population.